controlling in management
Planning, organization, staffing, and direction must be pursued to maintain their efficiency and effectiveness. Therefore, control is the last of the five functions of management, and it is actually concerned with following up on each of these functions to evaluate the organization’s performance towards achieving its goals.
In the control function of management, you will establish performance criteria that will be used to measure progress towards goals. These performance measures are designed to determine whether people and the various parts of the organization are on the right track on their path to the planned goals.
The four steps of the control process:
The control function is closely related to planning. In fact, the primary purpose of control is to determine the success of the planning function. This process can be restricted to four basic steps that apply to any person, item, or process that is intended to be controlled and monitored.
These four basic steps are:
1- Setting performance standards:
The benchmark is a measurement tool, quantitative or qualitative, designed to assist the observer of the performance of people, goods or processes. Criteria are used to determine progress or lags in goals. The nature of the criterion used depends on the command to be followed. Whatever the criteria, they can all be classified into one of these two groups: administrative standards or technical standards. Below is a description of each type.
A - Administrative standards: It includes several things such as reports, regulations and performance evaluations. They should all focus on the essential areas and the type of performance required to achieve the set goals. Management metrics express who, when, and why to work.
Example: The sales manager asks for a monthly report from all vendors showing what was done during the month.
B - Technical standards: determine what and how to work. It is applied to production methods, processes, materials, machinery, safety equipment, and suppliers. Technical standards can come from internal and external sources.
Example: Safety standards are dictated by government regulations or manufacturers' specifications for their equipment.
2 - Tracking actual performance:
This step is a preventive measure.
3 - Performance Measurement:
In this step, managers measure performance and determine if it matches the specified criteria. If the results of the comparison or measurements are acceptable - within the assumed limits - no action is required. Either the results are far from what is expected or are not acceptable, necessary action must be taken.
4 - Correct deviations from standards:
Determining the correct action to be taken depends on three things: the standard, the accuracy of the measurements that showed the existence of the deviation, and the analysis of the person or machine's performance to find out the cause of the deviation. Keep in mind these criteria may be too loose or too strict. Measurements may be inaccurate due to poor use of the measuring instruments or due to defects in the instruments themselves. Finally, people can make poor judgment when determining what corrective measures to take.