Planning (forecasting) is the first function of management .
Planning is the primary function of the administration, as it is the base on which other administrative functions are built, and it is characterized as a continuous process that includes determining the progress of things as planned to reach the required goals, and by means of planning it is possible to answer some important questions such as:
1 - What must we do to achieve our goals?
2 - What is our position on this goal, and where are we from it now?
3 - What are the means and methods that help us continue towards achieving the goal? What are the things that will hinder our path towards achieving this goal?
4 - What are the alternatives available to us to achieve the goal?
Planning, as we mentioned, is the primary function on which the rest of the administrative functions are based, as it determines the roles that each individual will perform within the organization, as well as determining the tasks that the various departments undertake, in order to count months or long years to come. Planning determines the size of the required resources, the number and type of employees according to Required majors and organizational structure development.
Types of planning:
• Strategic planning:
it is long-term planning and is concerned with the general affairs of the organization as a whole. Strategic planning begins by the higher administrative level, but all administrative levels must be involved in it: The objectives of it:
Finding a long-term plan to achieve the goals of the organization over many years to come.
- Achieving multi-level participation in the planning process
- Developing the organization and achieving harmony between all administrative units with each other through their participation in the planning process.
It is short-term planning and focuses on some activities specified in the strategic plans, and is concerned with what the lower levels must achieve, how to achieve it and bear its responsibility, and it can be said that it is planning that aims to achieve short-term goals in order to reach the achievement of the long-term goals set in the strategic plan of the organization .
Executive planning is used to accomplish his work tasks and responsibilities. It can be used one or several times.
Single-use plans are applied to repeated activities on a daily or monthly basis. As for the plans used for several times or continuous, they are plans that relate to the policies and procedures followed within the organization.
Steps to prepare operational plans:
The first step is (setting goals), in which the future goals that the organization seeks to achieve are defined.
The second step is (environment analysis) in which the environment surrounding the organization is analyzed and the amount of available resources and capabilities that serve the organization's work.
The third step (identifying alternatives) is building a list of possibilities and identifying available alternatives.
The fourth step (evaluating alternatives) is to prepare a list of alternatives that have been identified, and to identify the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative.
The fifth step (choosing the best alternative), which is after making a comparison between the alternatives and their advantages, the choice is made that achieves the greatest advantages and the least defects.
The sixth step (implementation of the plan), in which the executors are identified, the size of the resources available to them is estimated, and reports prepared for that.
The seventh step (monitoring and evaluating results) is to ensure that the plan is proceeding according to what is specified, to ensure that it is on the right path towards achieving the desired goals or not, and to make adjustments if necessary.