The reward system in the brain
The reward system in the brain
It is a group of neural structures responsible for the trait of motivations, that is, motives and desires, that is, the impulse to reward, and in the first place positive reinforcement, classic conditioning and positive emotions that depend on pleasure as the basis of their components.
A catalyst is an influencer, an event or an activity that has the ability to make us initiate it and approach it, and the first of these rewards is the survival of the self and the offspring, so the survival of the self is known through food and satisfying the need for hunger, for example the motivation in gambling is the motivation to achieve the gain is considered a classic condition .
The survival of most animal species depends on maximizing contact with beneficial stimuli and reducing contact with harmful stimuli. The reward system increases the likelihood of survival.
Through the above, the reward system in the brain can be defined as a group of brain structures and nerve pathways responsible for cognition.
The three main functions of rewards are their ability to:
1. Collaborative learning and effective reinforcement
2. Influencing decision-making and motivating approach behavior to rewarding influences
3. Stir up positive emotions.
When performing a self-liking behavior, this system rewards by activating the nerve circuits associated with pleasure, and this is the incentive to make you want to do it again. The amount of pleasure resulting varies according to the influencer, for example the survival reward comes through nutrition with appropriate healthy food and sex, and secondary rewards Includes money and listening to music.
Addiction is not very different from that, as it gives an amount of pleasure and satisfaction and makes him ask for more drugs, a certain food, smoking, or even a mobile phone or addiction to a specific game.
The brain structures that make up the reward system are made up of the cerebral cortex, the basal ganglia, and the thalamus, (the basal ganglia is that part of the cycle of activity drivers within the reward system.
It is an important area responsible for the reward system in the brain, as it is activated when a person gets good and favorite food for him, or when he gets an amount of money, a, when someone praises him and praises him, as it is known that a person by nature tends and seeks to improve his reputation This area is most active when a person praises and praises the person, acknowledges his efforts and appreciates his actions.
Pleasure is a component of the reward system, but not all of it is enjoyable. For example, money does not arouse pleasure unless it is conditional on a specific reward, such as using it to buy anything a person desires. Pleasant stimuli are more attractive and are called intrinsic rewards, while stimuli are attractive and stimulate behavior and are not pleasant and triggered. It has external rewards and is rewarding as a result of cooperative learning.
Pleasure is among the contents of the reward system, which are structures in the brain that achieve a feeling of pleasure, and these centers are located in the Farol bridge, the nucleus accumbens, the insular lobe and the orbital cortex. Injections elsewhere cause aversion.
It includes a stimulus that is converted into a rewarding stimulus by the nucleus accumbens. The degree of dopamine transport in the neural pathways to the nucleus accumbens is strongly correlated with the degree of the stimulus.
Likewise, activation of the dorsal region of the nucleus accumbens is associated with increased craving. Dopamine transmission is not only responsible for appetite and desire for rewarding effects, but can also direct behavior away from unwanted stimuli.
Date of emergence of this system:
The first idea of the existence of this system came by chance when James Olds and Peter Milner discovered in 1954 in an experiment on mice that were doing some behaviors such as pressing a specific tape or metal piece to get electrical stimulus waves to specific locations in their brains, and this phenomenon was called (Self-stimulation inside the skull) mice will continue pressing the tape hundreds of times until they have exhausted all their energy in order to stimulate the brain. And when this test was performed on humans, it was found that the results are similar.